Steven A. Hawkins, Ph.D.
Professor of Exercise Science
I joined the Exercise Science Department at CLU in the Fall of 2007. I teach Exercise Physiology, Advanced Exercise Physiology, and Capstone. My previous research focused on skeletal health and musculoskeletal aspects of aging. Currently I am focusing on writing up several of those projects.
Ph.D., University of Southern California, 8/95 – 12/99 Field of Study: Exercise Physiology
M.S., Emporia State University, Kansas, 8/83 – 5/85 Fields of Study: Physical Education
B.S.E., Emporia State University, Kansas, 1/79 – 5/83 Fields of Study: Physical Education & Biology
Working Group on Nutrition & Physical Activity for Bone Health - National Osteoporosis Foundation, January 2017 - May 2019
NACSM, NAK, and AKA Committee Member, Physical Activity Promotion in Colleges and Universities, January 2012-December 2015
NACSM Committee Member, Exercise is Medicine on Campus, May 2010-June 2015
SWACSM President, November 2009 - October 2010
SWACSM Administrative Council Member, October 2002 – October 2009, November 2010-October 2011
Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine
Research Fellow, Physical Activity and Public Health, CDC
Grant Reviewer – National Institutes of Health, Center for Disease Control, Research Council of Hong Kong
Peer Reviewer – Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, European Journal of Applied Physiology, Journal of Gerontology Medical Sciences, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Age and Ageing, Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, Research in Sports Medicine, Life Sciences, Family and Community Health, International Journal of Exercise Science, International Journal of Sports Medicine, Physician and Sportsmedicine, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Sports Medicine
Memberships – American College of Sports Medicine, Southwest Chapter of the American College of Sports Medicine
USA Track & Field – Level II certified endurance coach, Level I certified coach
1) Angular kinematics and critical power of younger and older cyclists during the 3-min all-out test. LeBlanc, M, T. Peterson, S. McClave, and S.A. Hawkins (2022). Journal of Science & Cycling, 11(1), 39-48.
2) Relationship between ground reaction force characteristics and bone mineral density of the hip and spine in male runners. (2022) LeBlanc, M., A. Burdullis, M. McKinnon, S. Hawkins. International Journal of Exercise Science, 15:(1); 655-666.
3) LeBlanc, M., B.J. Sanders, and S.A. Hawkins. Effect of fatigue and sex on isokinetic torque values in water polo athletes (2021). Gazzetta Medica Italiana, 180(5); 186-194.
4) Marcus, A., A. Rossi, A. Cornwell, S.A. Hawkins, and N. Khodiguian (2019). The effects of a novel bicarbonate loading protocol on serum bicarbonate concentration. A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 16:41. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0309-4.
5) Bassett, D.R., K.F. Janz, B.E. Ainsworth. Consortium: P.S. Freedson, S.A. Hawkins, J.M. Pivarnik, M. Rudisill, J.W. Starnes, S.A. Ward, S. Francis, J.M. Kurka (2016). National Collegiate Fitness Index 2015 Report: Supporting Active Lifestyles at Colleges and Universities.
6) Hawkins, S.A., N. Crespo, and A. Rosseullo (2014). Associations of acculturation on peak bone mass and correlates of bone health in Latino women. Sports Sciences for Health 10(2); 127-133.
7) Marcell, T.J., S.A. Hawkins, and R.A. Wiswell (2014). Leg strength declines with advancing age despite chronic endurance exercise in active older adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 28(2); 504-513.
8) McClave, S, M. LeBlanc, and S.A. Hawkins (2011). Sustainability of critical power determined by a 3-minute all-out test in elite cyclists. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 25(11); 3093-3098.
9) Crespo, N.C., E.J. Yoo, and S. A. Hawkins (2011). Anthropometric and lifestyle associations of bone mass in healthy pre-menopausal Mexican and Asian American women. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(1); 74-80.
10) Yoo, E.J., T.W. Jun, and S.A. Hawkins (2010). The effects of a walking exercise program on fall-related fitness, rate of bone loss, and fall-related psychological factors in elderly women. Research in Sports Medicine: An International Journal 18(4); 236-250.
11) Hawkins, S.A., and E.J. Yoo (2010). Site specific relationships between muscle strength and mass and bone mineral density in young and middle-aged women. Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women 42; 807-816.
12) Rossuello, A.E., S.A. Hawkins, and R.A. Wiswell (2009). Absolute lactate threshold predicts endurance performance in master athletes. Biology of Sport 26(2); 105-112.
13) Yoo, E.J., and S.A. Hawkins (2008). Lifestyle determinants of bone mineral density among subgroups of Asian-American women. Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women22(1); 89-101.
14) Schroeder, E.T., S.A. Hawkins, D.M. Hyslop,A.F. Vallejo, N.E. Jensky, and R.A. Wiswell (2006). Longitudinal change in coronary disease risk factors in older runners. Age and Ageing 36; 1-5.
15) Dreyer, H.C., E.T Schroeder, S.A. Hawkins, T.J. Marcell, K.M. Tarpenning, A. Vallejo, N.Jensky, G. Shaibi, S. Spears, R. Yamada,and R.A. Wiswell (2006). Chronic exercise and skeletal muscle power in older men. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 31; 1-6.
16) Tarpenning, K.M., S.A. Hawkins, T.J. Marcell, and R.A. Wiswell (2006). Endurance exercise and leg strength in older women. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 14(1); 3-11.
17) Schroeder, E.T., S.A. Hawkins, and S.V. Jaque (2004). Musculoskeletal adaptations to 16 weeks of eccentric progressive resistance training in young women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 18(2); 227-235.
18) Hawkins, S.A., M.G. Cockburn, A.S. Hamilton, and T. Mack (2004). An estimate of physical activity prevalence in a large population-based cohort. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36(2); 253-260.
19) Tarpenning, K.M., M. Hamilton-Wessler, R.A. Wiswell, and S.A. Hawkins (2004). Endurance training can delay onset of age-associated decline in leg strength and muscle morphology. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 36(1); 74-78.
20) Hawkins, S.A., R.A. Wiswell, and T.J. Marcell (2003). Review: Exercise and the master athlete - A model of successful aging? Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 58A(11); 1009-1011.
21) Hawkins, S.A., and R.A. Wiswell (2003). Invited Review: Rate and mechanism of VO2max decline with aging: Implications for exercise training. Sports Medicine 33(12); 877-888.
22) Marcell, T.J., S.A. Hawkins, K.M. Tarpenning, D.M. Hyslop, and R.A. Wiswell (2003). Longitudinal analysis of lactate threshold in male and female master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 35(5); 810-817.
23) Tarpenning, K.M., S.A. Hawkins, and R.A. Wiswell (2003). CHO-induced blunting of cortisol response to weightlifting exercise in resistance-trained older men. European Journal of Sports Sciences 3(2); 1-11.
24) Khodiguian, N., A. Cornwell, E. Lares, P.A. DiCaprio, and S.A. Hawkins (2003). Expression of the bilateral deficit during reflexively evoked contractions. Journal of Applied Physiology 94; 171-178.
25) Hawkins, S.A., E.T. Schroeder, H.C. Dreyer, S.J. Underwood, and R.A. Wiswell (2003). Five-year maintenance of bone mineral density in female master runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 35(1); 137-144.
26) Wiswell, G.M., S.A. Hawkins, A.C. Parcell, P.E. Allsen, R.K. Conlee, Y.S. Jung, and R.A. Wiswell (2002). Glucose kinetics following maximal exercise in master athletes. Clinical Exercise Physiology 4(2); 85-90.
27) Dreyer, H.C., S.A. Hawkins, E.T. Schroeder, S.V. Jaque, D.M. Hyslop, and R.A. Wiswell (2002). Hormone replacement therapy does not alter the positive influence of chronic exercise on blood lipids. Clinical Exercise Physiology 4(2); 91-95.
28) Wiswell, R.A., S.A. Hawkins, H.C. Dreyer, and S.V. Jaque (2002). Maintenance of BMD in older male runners is independent of changes in training volume or VO2Peak. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 57A(4); M203-M208.
29) Hawkins, S.A., R. A. Wiswell, and E.T. Schroeder (2002). The relationship between bone adaptations to resistance exercise and reproductive hormone levels. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 10; 64-75.
30) Tarpenning, K.M., R.A. Wiswell, S.A. Hawkins, and T.J. Marcell (2001). Influence of weight training exercise and modification of hormonal response on skeletal muscle growth. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 4(4); 431-446.
31) Schroeder, E.T., S.V. Jaque, S.A. Hawkins, C. Olson, M. Terk, R.A. Wiswell, and F.R. Sattler (2001). Regional DXA in assessment of muscle adaptation to anabolic stimuli. Clinical Exercise Physiology 3(4); 199-206.
32) Hawkins, S.A., T.J. Marcell, S.V. Jaque, and R.A. Wiswell (2001). A longitudinal assessment of change in VO2max and maximal heart rate in master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(10); 1744-1750.
33) Wiswell, R.A., S.A. Hawkins, S.V. Jaque, D. Hyslop, N. Constantino, K. Tarpenning, T. Marcell, and E.T. Schroeder (2001). Relationship between physiological loss, performance decrements, and age in master athletes. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 56A(10); M618-M626.
34) Jung, Y.S., S.A. Hawkins, and R.A. Wiswell (2001). Body composition and muscle strength as determinants of racial differences in BMD. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 9(2); 213-222.
35) Wiswell, R.A., S.V. Jaque, T.J. Marcell, S.A. Hawkins, K.M. Tarpenning, N. Constantino, and D.M. Hyslop (2000). Maximal aerobic power, lactate threshold and performance in male and female master athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32(6); 1165-1170.
36) Jung, Y.S., R.A. Wiswell, and S.A. Hawkins (1999). Relationship between BMD and LBM in sedentary students and elite middle distance runners. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 38(4); 431-439.
37) Hawkins, S.A., E.T. Schroeder, R.A. Wiswell, S.V. Jaque, T.J. Marcell, and K. Costa (1999). Eccentric muscle action increases site-specific osteogenic response. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(9); 1287-1292.
38) Hawkins, S.A., R.A. Wiswell, S.V. Jaque, N. Constantino, E.T. Schroeder, and D.M. Hyslop (1999). The inability of hormone replacement therapy or chronic running to maintain bone mass in master's athletes. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 54A(9); M451-M455.
39) Marcell, T.J., D.R. Taafe, S.A. Hawkins, K.T. Tarpenning, G. Pyka, L. Kohlmeier, R.A. Wiswell, and R. Marcus (1999). Oral arginine does not stimulate basal or augment exercise induced GH secretion in either young or old humans. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences 54A(8); M395-M399.
40) Marcell, T.J., R.A. Wiswell, S.A. Hawkins, and K.T. Tarpenning (1999). Age-related blunting of growth hormone secretion during exercise may not be solely due to increased somatostatin tone. Metabolism 48(5); 665-670.
Textbooks and Chapters
1) Stanbrough, M., and S. Hawkins (2016). The history of Emporia State University track & field: A legendary tradition. Roho Publishing.
2) Stanbrough, M., and S. Hawkins (2016). The history of Emporia State cross country: A legendary tradition of distance running. Roho Publishing.
3) Hawkins, S.A (2009). The effects of aging and sustained exercise involvement on cardiovascular function in older persons. In: "Master Athletes: Understanding the Role of Exercise in Optimizing Aging". J. Baker, S. Horton & P. Weir (Eds.), Florence, KY: Routledge Publishing pp. 52-65.
4) Hawkins, S.A. (2005) Exercise programming for master athletes. In: "Physical Activity and the Older Adult: Essentials for Senior Fitness Instructors" J. Jones & D. Rose (Eds.), Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, pp. 263-279.
1) S06 GM 8101-28 Minority Biomedical Research Support-Support for Continuous Research Excellence Program, NIH, ($330,750) 7/1/05 – 6/30/08. Project entitled “The influence of acculturation on peak bone density in young Latinas”, Steven Hawkins, PI(25%) (CSULA).
2) S06 GM 8101-28 Minority Biomedical Research Support-Support for Continuous Research Excellence Program, NIH. ($175,444) 7/1/02 – 6/30/04. Project entitled “Physiologic and lifestyle factors related to osteoporosis within multiethnic communities”, Steven Hawkins, PI (25%) (CSULA).
3) Life Fitness Graduate Student Award, Life Fitness Inc. ($2,500) 7/1/98 – 6/30/99. Project entitled “Strain magnitude, rate and distribution from impact exercise as effectors of bone adaptation”, Steven Hawkins, PI (USC).
1) Hewlett Grant ($1,000) Spring 2011. Support travel to National ACSM meeting to present research data.
2) Hewlett Grant ($1,000) Spring 2009. Support travel to National ACSM meeting to present research data.
3) Hewlett Grant ($1,000) Spring 2008. Support travel to National ACSM meeting to present research data.
4) Service Learning Curriculum Development ($2,500) Spring 2003. Modify KIN 345 “Physiological effects of exercise during aging” to include a service learning component. Steven Hawkins, PI (CSULA).